Brazilian Journal of Forensic Sciences, Medical Law and Bioethics https://www.bjfs.org/bjfs/bjfs <p>The Brazilian Journal of Forensic Sciences, Medical Law and Bioethics (BJFS), the only journal in Latin America with this scope, aims to promote and enhance scientific production in Forensic Sciences, Medical and Dental Law, and Bioethics, exposing reviews, new technologies and methodologies employed in various situations, encouraging multidisciplinary interaction in the field of these sciences.</p> en-US brazilianjournal@fvm.edu.br (Drª. Ariadne de Andrade Costa) brazilianjournal@fvm.edu.br (Editores BJFS) Mon, 25 Apr 2022 21:56:30 +0000 OJS 3.3.0.8 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Chemical-Metallographic Examination and Vehicle Identification in a Motorcycle-type Vehicle: Case Report https://www.bjfs.org/bjfs/bjfs/article/view/867 <p>Vehicle identification tests and chemical-metallographic tests are attributions carried out by the criminal expert. Thus, the objective of this study was to identify a motorcycle by evaluating its identifying elements and performing a chemical-metallographic examination on the Vehicle Identification Number (NIV) and the engine's alphanumeric sequence, in order to recover the original adulterated characters. This is a case report related to a motorcycle-type self-propelled, which exhibits black automotive paint without the alphanumeric vehicle identification plate. By means of a macroscopic analysis of the vehicle's identification elements, it was found initially: underlying red to black paint placed on the fuel tank; plate affixed to the vehicle chassis showing originality characteristics and expressing the year of manufacture 1999; the alphanumeric sequences present in the NIV and past engine were, respectively, partially and fully suppressed by mechanical action. After preparing the metallic surfaces of the chassis and engine, the Besseman reagent was applied to the NIV and to the metallic alloy of the engine or concentrated hydrochloric acid (35%). After the application of the reagents, the revelation of the original underlying characters fully belonging to the NIV was observed, as well as the characters recorded in the motor vehicle were evidenced almost entirely. Thus, through the examinations performed, it was technically possible to identify the analyzed vehicle. Furthermore, it should be noted that there is a literary gap related to the theme addressed in the field of forensic sciences, which gives rise to new studies and similar reports.</p> Leonardo de Paula Miranda, Thatiane Lopes Oliveira Copyright (c) 2022 Brazilian Journal of Forensic Sciences, Medical Law and Bioethics https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.bjfs.org/bjfs/bjfs/article/view/867 Mon, 25 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The Application of Frontal and Maxillary Sinuses Indices for Computed Tomography-Based Sex Estimation of a Brazilian Population https://www.bjfs.org/bjfs/bjfs/article/view/898 <p>This investigation aimed to compare the sexing accuracy of frontal (FS) and maxillary (MS) sinus indices with multislice computed tomography (MSCT) in Brazilian adults. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 100 MSCT examinations (50 males and 50 females). The height, width, and diameter of the FSs and MSs were obtained with the RadiAnt software to measure four indexes (I): FSI-1 and MSI-1 (both width/ diameter); FSI-2 and MSI-2 (both height/diameter). Areas under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROC) were determined. Sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratio (LR), and accuracy values ​​were also calculated. The highest area under the ROC curve for the FS was obtained by the FSI-1 (0.712 ± 0.052; p &lt; 0.001), whereas for the MS it was found in the MSI-2 (0.431 ± 0.058; p = 0.232). FSI-1 showed greater specificity (64%) in predicting female sex as well as greater accuracy (64%) and LR (3.16). MSI-1 had the highest sensitivity value (68%) in estimating male sex and the second highest LR value (2.13). The FSI-1 developed in the present study exhibited higher accuracy compared to the other evaluated indices, which reinforces its importance for future studies with other populations.</p> Diego Santiago de Mendonça, Esther Carneiro Ribeiro, Andréa Silvia Walter de Aguiar, Paulo Goberlânio de Barros Silva, Phillipe Nogueira Barbosa Alencar, Lúcio Mitsuo Kurita, Fábio Wildson Gurgel Costa Copyright (c) 2022 Brazilian Journal of Forensic Sciences, Medical Law and Bioethics https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.bjfs.org/bjfs/bjfs/article/view/898 Tue, 26 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000